King David Experts
King David is one of the most well-known figures in Jewish history. His life was filled with much happiness and much pain. He is known by many titles: David the conqueror, David the pious man, David the sweet singer, David the shepherd and David the penitent. King David was a descendant of Judah as well as Ruth and was promised by G‑d that his children would rule Israel forever. Until this very day, he is remembered by Jews everywhere, who still chant his Psalms in prayer, in times of joy and sorrow.
David fulfills Abraham's land promise (again)
King David in Jerusalem 33 years
(1003-1001 BC: 37-39 years old)
2 Samuel 8-12; 1 Chron 18-20
“I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly, even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you. “When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. “He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.” (2 Samuel 7:10–13)
"David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah...
as he went to restore his rule at the River Euphrates". (2 Sam 8:3)
David's New Spiritual Order
(Temple worship, Priesthood, Army)
King David in Jerusalem 33 years
(37-70 years old)
2 Samuel 6-7; 1 Chron 13-17-22
“All this,” said David,
“the LORD made me understand in writing by His hand upon me,
all the details of this pattern.” (1 Chronicles 28:19)
The Ark of covenant is moved from Kiriath-jearim to the house of Obed-edom and then to Jerusalem. The Tabernacle of Moses remains at Gibeon until Solomon finishes the temple. Once the temple of Solomon is built, the Tabernacle of Moses is decommissioned and stored in a room in the temple and then lost forever in history.
Timeline and chronology:
a. In 1082 BC, Saul is born.
b. In Jonathan is likely born around 1067 BC since he is Saul’s oldest son.
c. In 1052 BC, Samuel was 52 years old when he anointed Saul at age 30 year old as king. 1 Sam 13:1
d. In 1040 BC, David is born when Jonathan is about 27 years old and Saul is 42.
e. In 1025 BC, David kills Goliath. Saul had been king for 27 years but had failed to obey God twice and is told another will replace him. (David)
f. 1025- 1018 BC: David’s time in the Saul’s palace at Gibeah of Benjamin: 7 years
g. 1018-1014 BC: David’s time on the run: 4 years.
h. In 1014 Samuel dies an old man, likely 90 years old. 1 Sam 25:1. For about 4 years, Samuel can look down from Ramah where he lives and see the Tabernacle between 1018-1014 BC.
i. In 1010 BC Saul and Jonathan die.
j. Saul was 72 years old when he died
k. Jonathan was 57 years old when he died.
l. David was 30 when he began to reign as king in Hebron between 1010-1003 BC
m. In 1005 BC Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, is made king by Abner, who has been out of job as army commander ever since Saul died 5 years earlier. This is the beginning of the divided kingdom period for two years when David ruled Judah and Ish-bosheth ruled the other 11 tribes.
n. In 1005 BC Abner and Ish-bosheth are killed, David then captures Jerusalem and begins his reign at age 37. He reigns in Jerusalem for 33 years.
o. In 999 BC, Solomon is born.
7 Life-Lessons From King David
1. Never Judge by Appearances
Our first lesson comes not from David, but from G‑d Himself. G‑d dispatched the prophet Samuel to Jesse’s house to anoint one of his sons future king of Israel. One by one, Samuel was shown all of Jesse’s older sons, but none were “the one.” Little David, out tending the sheep, was not present. Said G‑d to Samuel: “Look not upon his appearance, or the height of his stature … the L‑rd sees into the heart.” Smallest and least likely of them all, it was David who held the potential to lead Israel to greatness.1
2. Just Because No One Did It, Does Not Mean It Cannot Be Done
David was catapulted to fame and acclaim after he successfully killed Goliath, the Philistine giant before whom the entire Israelite camp cowered, with a mere slingshot and five smooth stones. Even King Saul tried to dissuade David, claiming that he was too young to take on such a seasoned warrior. David was the only one to realize that even the greatest of men can be felled by a well-aimed stone, and that no one is stronger than G‑d. In David’s own words to Goliath: “You come to me with a sword, spear and javelin, but I come against you in the name of G‑d Almighty, the G‑d of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied.”2
3. Think Outside the Box
When King Saul became jealous of David’s success, he was forced to flee to the land of the Philistines, enemies of Israel. Knowing his reputation as a hero made him widely recognized, David “changed his speech before their eyes and feigned insanity before them. And he scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down upon his beard.”3
David’s quick thinking caused the Philistines to disregard him, and his life was spared. In life, there is always a solution, but it may not be the obvious one.
4. Be Emotional
Throughout his life, David expressed his emotion through song and/or weeping. Even though he was a celebrated warrior, David was not ashamed to show his humanity. Like David, we must give expression to our feelings, never feeling too “manly” for a good cry.
5. Never Forget About G‑d
When David was finally firmly ensconced on his throne in Jerusalem, he was not content with his own comfort and sought to build a Temple for G‑d. Ultimately, he was told that he would not be the one to build G‑d’s home in Jerusalem (that would be the job of his son, Solomon7), but it wasn’t for lack of goodwill on his part.
6. Don’t Worry About What Others May Think
When David brought the Holy Ark to Jerusalem, he “danced with all his might before the L‑rd.” Queen Michal, daughter of King Saul, found it distasteful for a king to display such emotion in public. When she criticized him for allowing even simple folk to see him in such a state, David explained his actions by saying that G‑d had chosen him to become king over Israel. Even if he were to “demean” himself further, he said, he was confident that the onlookers would honor him.8
When we push aside our concern over public opinion to serve G‑d in the way we know to be correct, people respect us for our strength of conviction.
7.Be a Loyal Friend
Jonathan (son of Saul) and David were an unlikely pair of friends, who promised that their friendship would extend to their children.13 Time and time again, Jonathan risked his very life in order to save David from Saul’s evil schemes. Their last parting was one of copious tears and hugs. Even after Jonathan’s death, David lavished care and attention upon his late friend’s son, Mephibosheth, supporting him financially in Jerusalem.14
Blood runs thicker than water, and friendship is even deeper than blood. Treasure your friends, and treat them with loyalty and devotion.